John 3:16 Arrow For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life ^DREAM interpretation ministry




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First Aid: Tips For Common Accidents And Emergencies
#11
STROKE ( cardiovascular accident,CVA )

This is a kind of interruption in the function of the brain due to a sudden shortage of blood. The neurological deficits the victim experiences do not return within 24hours. This is in contrast to Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) that returns fully within 24hrs. However,a person who encounters TIA is at higher risk of having stroke in no distant time.

Pointers:

_ tingling,weakness or numbness on one side of the body
_ loss of muscle tone of the face,and rest of one side of the body.
_ blurred or double vision
_ nausea
_ loss of speech or uttering meaningless sounds
_ loss of balance and coordination
_ altered or complete loss of consciousness

STROKE ( cardiovascular accident,CVA )

This is a kind of interruption in the function of the brain due to a sudden shortage of blood. The neurological deficits the victim experiences do not return within 24hours. This is in contrast to Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) that returns fully within 24hrs. However,a person who encounters TIA is at higher risk of having stroke in no distant time.

Pointers:

_ tingling,weakness or numbness on one side of the body
_ loss of muscle tone of the face,and rest of one side of the body.
_ blurred or double vision
_ nausea
_ loss of speech or uttering meaningless sounds
_ loss of balance and coordination
_ altered or complete loss of consciousness

What to do:

* call the paramedic at once or push the person to the hospital.

* while the above is been done,do the following...

* Check the person's level of consciousness (call the person's name,ask him a simple question like where is he,what time it is)

* Check breathing...if bad, do CPR.

* Move the person to the side...to prevent choking

* Cover the person to reduce heat loss

*lie the person flat...to promote an optimal blood flow to the brain


Prevention
Control the followlog:
#High blood pressure
#cholesterol
#DM...diabetics mellitus

#quit smoking
#avoid alcohol
#exercise regulary
# Reduce weight

Three commands (cincinnati prehospital stroke
This helps determine if the potential for stroke exist

# smile: the face and mouth should move symmetrically,the nothi shouldn't deviate to a side

# Raise both arms: looking for weakness on sided safe on side of the body

#Speak a simple sentence

If potential stroke person cannont perform these tasks,call the paramedic or rush the person to hospital
#12
DIARRHOEA

Diarrhoea is a change in the consistency of the stool to being abnormaly loose or fluid and increase in the frequency of stools more than is normal for the age.
It is commoner and more severe in children below 5yrs of age.

Management of most cases is aimed at preventing and correcting dehydration and treatment of cause.

When a child passes one loose stool, it should be assumed that dehydration will set in even if the child looks well at the particular time.

Thus the mother or caregiver should start the following at home:

(1) continue brea.st feeding, if the child still brea.st feeds.

(2) prepare ORS or SSS (if ORS is not available)

[ ORS = Oral Rehydration Solution, SSS = Salt Sugar Solution ]

(3) use only cup and spoon to administer the fluid. Use of feeding bottle can lead to infection or over-hydration, so it's discouraged.

*HOW TO MAKE ORS

_get the satchet of oral rehydration salt and empty it into a litre of water. And shake.

HOW TO MAKE SSS

_get 1litre or 1bottle or 2 soft drink bottles of water

_add 1level teaspoon (3ml) of salt (1.8-2.4) to the water.

_add 10 level teaspoon or 5 cubes of sugar (25g) to the water.

_shake the solution (mixture)

i.e
1L of water + 1 teaspoon salt + 10 teaspoon or 5 cubes of sugar = SSS

[if the source of water is not trusted,then boil the water and allow to cool before use. The constituted ORS or SSS should be used within 24hrs. Discard after 24hrs and prepare another one if there's need for more]

HOW TO GIVE THE FLUID

The fluid is given at 10ml/kg/loose stool.

i.e 10ml times the child's weight = volume of fluid to be given for every loose stool made by the child.

Get the required volume and give the child at rate 1 spoon every 1-2 mins or as much as the child wants.

If child vomits,wait for about 10mins and give slowly.

Increase feeding rate and improve diet.

If child is on lactose containing infant formula then switch to non-lactose containing formula for few days allowing time for the diarrhoea to subside.

TAKE THE CHILD TO HOSPITAL IF ANY OF THE FOLLOWING OCCURS:

* Weakness
* Diarrhoea persists
* Vomiting persists
* Blood in stool

If ORS or SSS is not available, give any of these:

* Green coconut water

* Rice water + salt (added to the rice water)

* Garri water + salt (added to the garri water)

* plain water

Avoid carbonated drinks,fruit juice etc they can worsen diarrhoea by osmotic effect.

NEVER give anti-diarrhoea drug to children.

Zinc and vitamin A maybe given for 10-14 days.

PREVENTION

* Keep good personal and home hygiene

* proper handling of child's feces.

* Use properly treated water,esp for drinking.

* Avoid the use of feeding bottles.

* Avoid overcrowding or smoking in the house.

* install mosquito net on the windows,doors and beds. Use mosquito sprays.

* Balanced diet.

Adult can still use ORS or SSS during diarrhoea episode.
#13
BEE or WASP STING

A bees or Wasp sting is different from other insect bites because venom is injected into the wound. The main danger is from Anaphylactic Shock – where a person has an adverse reaction to the sing/venom. This can be fatal, so prompt first aid and action is required if there are any signs of this.

(1) First, be safe and move away from the area as fast as you can. Bee’s release a pheromone after stinging which attracts other bees to the location

(2) If there are no obvious signs of a severe allergic reaction, remove the stinger as soon as possible (some wasps do not leave stingers). This can be done using your fingernails or a pair of tweezers. Removing the stinger as soon as possible affect the amount of venom injected into the skin.

(3) Control the swelling. Use ice compression over the area to achieve this. Remember, NEVER apply the ice directly to the skin. This may cause frostbite. Wrap in a cloth or towel before applying. Pack of frozen peas CAN be applied directly to the skin

(4) If you were stung on your arm or leg, elevate the limb.

(5) Remove any tight-fitting jewellery from the area of the sting. As it swells, rings or bracelets might become hard to get off.

(6) Treat the symptoms. There will be localised swelling and redness at the site of the sting, along with pain. Take some pain killers to mitigate the pain. The pain will usually subside after a couple of hours, but swelling may last for more than a day. For itchiness, take an antihistamine or apply a mixture of baking soda and water or calamine lotion.

(7) The might take 2-5 days for the area to heal. Keep it clean to prevent infection.


Signs of a severe allergic reaction – ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK

- Difficulty breathing or wheezing
- Tightness in the throat or a feeling that the airways are closing
- Hoarseness or trouble speaking
- Nausea, abdominal pain, or vomiting
- Fast heartbeat or pulse
- Skin that itches, tingles, swells, or turns red
- Anxiety or dizziness
- Loss of consciousness
- Rashes


If the person has anaphylaxis, emergency measures have to be implemented pretty quickly to save their life. This is done by an injection of Epinephrine. Most people who know they can suffer a severe allergic reaction to bee/wasps stings actually carry this.

- If they are unable to inject it, inject for them into outer muscle of the thigh. Do NOT inject it a vein or buttock muscles. Do not inject medicine into hands or feet. This can cause tissue damage.

- If there is no injection, get the person to a hospital immediately. If they stop breathing, then commence CPR

- Make sure that someone stays with the person for 24 hours after anaphylaxis in case of another attack.